Visual impairment

Home / Educational Leaflets / Visual impairment

Some of the main causes of visual impairment today include:


Cataracts cloud the lens of the eye blocking light and resulting in a loss of vision clarity. They are very common and cause about 50% of blindness in the world, affecting 20 million people. The good news is that they are preventable and treatable.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetes if uncontrolled can lead to serious health complications including diabetic retinopathy, which can result in blindness, as high blood sugar damages the retina.
Diabetic retinopathy is one of the main causes of blindness but this can be avoided with early diagnosis and treatment.

Diabetic maculopathy

Diabetic maculopathy is the result of damage to the macula which is the part of the eye which gives us our central vision and can be caused by retinopathy.
Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) is a common problem and leads to a build up of fluid on the macular resulting in damage.


Glaucoma can result in damage to the optic nerve, connecting the brain to the eye, and is a very common eye condition – affecting around 80 million people around the world. It can lead to loss of vision if not detected and treated in the early stages. Glaucoma usually develops because the fluid in the eye cannot drain properly, increasing the pressure inside the eye and applying pressure to the optic nerve.
Vision loss starts at the periphery of the field of vision and people may struggle to see well in low light.

Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD).

For people aged 60 and above, AMD is a common form of the loss of central vision caused by damage to the macula, which sits at the rear of eye.

Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP)

Retinitis Pigmentosa is a genetic eye disease inherited from generation to generation and is a serious condition that gradually leads to vision and night vision loss and even total blindness. It can start in childhood or adolescence.

Corneal blindness

Corneal Blindness is a visual impairment that develops through the clouding of the cornea, scarring or some other infection that affects the transparency of cornea, leading to permanent blindness and comprises a range of eye disease, infection and injury that damage the corneal tissues.